Generally, the corridor is a space for circulation in the rental social housing. However, in reality, space invasion by occupant's goods and gesture mark a part of the corridor which stimulates another activity on the corridor. This study aims to determine the most influential factors that affect the resident’s territory character at the corridor of Cibeureum Rental Social Housing. This research uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative approach to determine the most influential factor in forming the character of territory. The quantitative method by doing the statistical test of correlation and regression using IBM SPSS Statistics 24. The data is converted into the modification of nominal and Likert scale to find out the most influential factor in the development of resident’s territory character that makes it more invasive. The Sundanese, the low-income communities, and the kampong traditions of living (cultural factors) according to research conducted influence the formation phase of resident’s territory character. The interpretation of the need for space per individual (personal element) affects the development phase of resident's territory character with a stable relationship with the territory character of the residents with 90.7% probability in unit typology 24 and 93.8% in typology unit 27. Situational factors are secondary factors supporting cultural factors when forming the character of territory and personal factors as the character of territory develop. Factors from research conducted can develop the design idea of corridor space based on the occupant's territory character.
Keywords: Territory Character; Rental Social Housing; Corridor; Cibeureum.
Rental social housing in West Java is a modular design that is applied over and over so that the problems that occur in one building can happen in all similar structures in West Java. Typical rental social housing typology used are unit 24 with one bedroom (Figure 1, Figure 3) and unit 27 with two bedrooms (Figure 2, Figure 3). The design problem that occurred was the invasion with the personal belongings of the residents on the corridor that disrupted the safety aspects of the building (Figure 4). It becomes very narrow on some sides which interfere with its functionality as circulation space. This phenomenon happens because of the dominance of controls in the space .
Territory has levels from non-invasive to the most invasive, namely presence, use and action, appropriation, modification, and disposition . Factors that affect the character of territory according to the existing theory are personal, situational, and cultural which is too general . Personal factors related to individual matters such as gender, age, education, and religion [3,4]. Everything that causes a situation associates situational factors , which in this study is related to spatial and spatial capacity such as some occupants, floor height, and proximity to joint activity space (shared room and laundry room (unit 27)). Cultural factors related to the culture of society , which in this study is the tradition of living that of living consist of Sundanese (local people), low-income (resident economic) communities, and kampongs (previous residence for the majority of the inhabitants).
The tradition of living in the Sundanese society has the assumption that the person who owns the house also has land around it and is familiar with the mass ordering parallel to each other with circulation in the space between them (linear) . The tradition of living in low-income communities includes simplicity and togetherness [5-6]. The tradition of living in kampong has the concept of togetherness, communal, and plebeian .
This research will develop the theory with the fact that happened in the corridor of rental social housing in West Java, Indonesia. The results of this research can become additional consideration of the specific factors that affect the West Java occupant’s character of territory in the future designing process.
The study sample was all units of mass B, C (unit 24), and D (unit 27) representing each typology and difference in building orientation (Figure 5). Data collection for qualitative analysis with field sighting and interviewing residents in the morning, afternoon, and evening, on weekdays and weekends. Data retrieval for quantitative analysis with observation and administrative data from social housing manager, which converted into numbers with nominal and Likert scale scales adapted to each factor.
The scale depends on the variation present in each factor. Territory characters, number of children, and number of occupants consist of four scale scoring. Marriage status and tradition of living comprised of two scales scoring. Distance from joint activity spaces and floor height containing five scales scoring. Age consists of seven scales scoring. Education includes eight scales scoring. Religion consists of three scales scoring. Higher scoring represents more invasive, more, older, taller, farther, and the majority factors. A lower score represents a less intrusive, less, younger, smaller, closer, and minority factors.
The test applied to two typologies of rental social housing with the total sample of 272 samples (198 samples of unit 24 and 74 samples of unit 27). The correlation test to determine the relationship between the determining factor to the territory character of the residents by the Pearson and Spearman-Rho methods depending on the data normality test results. Regression test to obtain the probability of correlation relationship that happened. Statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics 24 software.
Based on the results of interviews, the formation of the territory character of the occupants is influenced by cultural factors. The assumption that space around the house is the house’s territory in the Sundanese tradition of living makes the tendency of spatial dominance to the corridor located in the front of the dwelling unit. Also, the living habits of the linear spatial order make the occupants feel the corridor as their own similar to land around a house in the past.
The tradition of living in low-income communities that influences is the concept of simplicity in exploiting the resources around the house to meet the occupant’s needs, which in this case is spatial needs. This tradition of living lead to an invasion into the corridor due to the small living area in the dwelling unit and a possible solution, in this case, is only dominating it. Also, social activity is frequently happening in this corridor mainly because of the concept of togetherness which occurred in the space close to the dwelling according to their tradition of living.
The tradition of living in the kampong community that influences is togetherness, by doing the activity together. Togetherness applied to many social events that are done collectively around the dwelling by the neighboring occupants. Communal concepts with strong fraternal ties make the occupants dominating the corridor space pleasantly knowing that the nearby occupants are not against it. Plebeian makes the highly invasive act of reducing corridor functionality happen even if it is not very intelligent. Moreover, in character D, the domination barricading the corridor space made it inaccessible for another occupant.
The territory character that occurs in the corridor has four types (Figure 6). Character A with no physical invasion or temporary minor physical invasion. Character B has the physical broadening of the upper and lower plane of the spatial plane adjacent to the dwelling. Character C has the physical widening of the top and the bottom plane both in the spatial plane adjacent to the unit and the atrium or inner court. Character D has a physical invasion of the upper and lower plane of both the spatial plane of the dwelling and with the spatial plane adjacent to the atrium or inner court with a tendency to block the access (Table 1).
Table 1: Cibeureum Rental Social Housing Occupant’s Territory Character Type
|Character type||Existing condition||Territory level|
|CHARACTER A: A territory character with no physical invasion or temporary minor physical invasion.||Presence|
|CHARACTER B: A territory character with the physical invasion of the upper and lower plane of the spatial plane adjacent to the dwelling.||Appropriation|
|CHARACTER C: A territory character with the physical invasion of the upper and the lower plane both in the spatial plane adjacent to the dwelling and the atrium or inner court.||Appropriation (more invasive than CHARACTER B)|
|CHARACTER D: A territory character with the physical invasion of the upper and lower plane of both the spatial plane of the dwelling and with the spatial plane adjacent to the atrium or inner court with a tendency to block the access.||Appropriation (more invasive than CHARACTER C)|
The interpretation of space requirements per individual influence the development of the level of territorial invasion occurring in both building typologies. A stable correlation relationship with the very high probability that is 90.7% in unit 24 and 93.8% in unit 27 shows the factor affecting the development of territory character is the interpretation of the individual space requirement (personal element) (Table 2). Other factors have a weak and fragile relationship with a probability below 5% in both typologies that is considered less significant. Cultural factors do not affect the development of territory character because they have no relationship based on the correlation test (Table 2). Rental social housing complex's residents have one tradition of living which is a combination of Sundanese, low-income, and kampong tradition of life and it is recognized.
Table 2: Statistical Test on Factor Affecting the Cibeureum Rental Social Housing Occupants' Territory Character
|Factor||Normality test result||Correlation test method||Correlation test||Regression test|
|Marriage status||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||-0,018||Negative very weak||0,000||0,0|
|Male age||Normal||Pearson||0,218||Positive weak||0,047||4,7|
|Female age||Normal||Pearson||0,127||Positive very weak||0,016||1,6|
|Number of children||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,035||Positive very weak||0,001||0,1|
|Children age||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,087||Positive very weak||0,007||0,7|
|Male education||Normal||Pearson||-0,068||Negative very weak||0,005||0,5|
|Female education||Normal||Pearson||-0,150||Negative very weak||0,022||2,2|
|Religion||Normal||Pearson||0,030||Positive very weak||0,001||0,1|
|Space needs interpretation||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,949||Positive very strong||0,907||90,7|
|Number of occupants||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,066||Positive very weak||0,003||0,3|
|Floor height||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,111||Positive very weak||0,010||1,0|
|Distance from joint activity spaces||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||-0,026||Negative very weak||0,000||0,0|
|Cultural factor||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,000||No correlation||0,000||0,0|
|Marriage status||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,024||Positive very weak||0,000||0,0|
|Male age||Normal||Pearson||0,121||Positive very weak||0,015||1,5|
|Female age||Normal||Pearson||0,010||Positive very weak||0,000||0,0|
|Number of children||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,001||Positive very weak||0,000||0,0|
|Children age||Normal||Pearson||-0,079||Negative very weak||0,006||0,6|
|Male education||Normal||Pearson||0,111||Positive very weak||0,012||1,2|
|Female education||Normal||Pearson||-0,120||Negative very weak||0,014||1,4|
|Religion||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,024||Positive very weak||0,001||0,1|
|Space needs interpretation||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,975||Positive very strong||0,938||93,8|
|Number of occupants||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,001||Positive very weak||0,001||0,1|
|Floor height||Normal||Pearson||-0,019||Negative very weak||0,000||0,0|
|Distance from joint activity spaces||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||-0,139||Negative very weak||0,024||2,4|
|Cultural factor||Abnormal||Spearman-Rho||0,000||No correlation||0,000||0,0|